In New York, the Divorce courts are concerned with “equity” or “fairness.” So if the business was started during your marriage, or even if it wasn’t, but during your marriage both you and your spouse worked at the business, or you did not actively work at the business, but you took care of things at home so that your spouse could run the business, it very well may be fair for you to get a cut of the value of the business if a divorce ensues.
It is often difficult to get a numeric value for a business. It can be costly to get actuaries, accountants and other “forensics experts” (often court appointed) to determine the value of the business and what each spouse’s share should be.
The same is true for advanced degrees and licenses. The court in New York does put a value on these and if you acquired these “assets” during marriage, your spouse may be entitled to monetary compensation for the portion that “accrued” during your marriage.